Activated carbon is produced from carbonaceous raw materials (coconut shell, wood, rice husk, corn cob) and its uses vary across food and non-food industries, from drinking water and waste-water treatment, to odor control, to processing of cooking oil, sugar, and chemical matter purification, and pharmaceutical manufacturing or processing.
Carbon has a natural affinity for organic pollutants which bind to its surface. Once activated, the carbon forms little pores and pockets that increase its surface area. An imbalance of forces then exists on the activated carbon atoms at the pore wall surface. To neutralize this imbalance, molecules are physically adsorbed, i.e., drawn and held physically to the pore wall (Van der Waals forces). In other words, compounds like pesticides, chloroform, and contaminants slide into the holes of this honeycomb-like substance and hold fast through a process called adsorption.
Adsorption is the process where molecules are concentrated on the surface of the activated carbon.
The forces involved in adsorption are sensitive to distance and are additive, meaning the adsorption force is the sum of all interactions between all the atoms. The short range and additive nature of these forces results in activated carbon having the strongest physical adsorption forces of any material known to mankind.
All compounds are adsorbable to some extent.
Activated carbon is manufactured through either chemical activation or steam activation.
Premier A.C. Corporation utilizes high temperature steam activation of selected grades of coconut shell coal. The activated carbon is then further processed to produce client-specified or standard end product.
Activated carbon with large holes would be best at picking up heavy organic chemicals, while smaller pores would catch the lighter types.
Coconut shell is an excellent material for activated carbon/charcoal. Activated charcoal (charcoal activated with CO2, water vapor, or chemical compounds) made of coconut shell has definitive advantages over its counterparts because of its ability to absorb color and aroma. This activated carbon type contains mainly fine adsorption pore structures suited not only for liquid phase but gas phase applications as well.
Coal based granular activated carbons has a substantial content of transport pore structure and good mechanical hardness. This combination allows the use of activated carbon in continuous decolorization processes resulting in superior performance.
Pore Size-Porosity and the pore structure are the most important characteristics of Activated carbon. Size of the micropores is the deciding factor in selective absorption. At least two systems of pores of distinctly different sizes exist in every carbon particle.
Macropores (1000 to 2600 Deg A) acts as large access ways for diffusion of particles.
Micropores (10 to 100 deg A) contributes towards large surface area which are responsible for absorption action.
Surface Area -From 200 to 2000 m2/g, depending upon the method and manner of preparation.
Adsorption Behavior -Depending on the process of activation, i.e. steam or chemically activated, the Activated Carbon differ in their adsorption behavior. Adsorption is when organic molecules bond to the internal pores of the activated carbon. This occurs in pores slightly larger than the molecules that are being adsorbed, which is why it is very important to match the molecule you are trying to adsorb with the pore size of the activated carbon. They are then trapped within the carbon’s internal pore structure by electrostatic attraction or chemical bonding and accumulate into a solid surface.